Wednesday, 4 December 2013

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Conference/   Seminar/ Workshop
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National Seminar
Recent Tends in Educational Technology
Holy Trinity College of Education




National Seminar
Construction and Standardization of Tools for Educational Research

James College of Education, Mananvilai


National Seminar
Quality Assurance in Teacher Education
Agniswamy College of Education
State Level Workshop
Improvised Teaching Aids for Effective Teaching
Ruben College of Education, Thadikkarankonam


State Level Seminar
Human Rights
Sadakathullah Appa College, Tirunelveli

2 days
Paper presented
National Seminar
Designing Educational Research
Bethlahem College of Education


National Seminar
Capacity Building of Students Teacher Class Room Communication
Grace College of Education, Padanthalumoodu




Experiments in Educational Psychology
Manonmaniam Sundarnar University, Tirunelveli

2 days


National Seminar
Human Rights Education among College Students
Nesamony Memorial Christian College, Marthandam

2 days
Paper presented

National Workshop
Research Methodology and Statistics
N.V.K.S.D College of Education, Attoor


National Seminar
Challenges and Responsibilities in Teacher Education for Quality Enhancement
Bethlahem College of Education, Karungal
2 days


Value has very intimate relationship with the human interest. Values refers to objects that human beings consider desirable and worthy of pursuit in their thoughts, feelings and actions. These may be materials (flood, wealth and various consumer goods) or abstract qualities and states of mind and heart like truthfulness, happiness, peace, justice etc.
Values reflect one’s personal attitudes and judgments, decisions and choices, behaviors and relationships, dreams and visions.
For example, in the absence of hunger, the value of edibles becomes very much less. On the other hand, when one is hungry, even a very ordinary food item seems to be very valuable. A thirsty individual is ready to pay anything for a glass of water.
1)    Views of Allport, “The term value means the relative prominence of the subject’s interest on the dominant interest in personality”.
2)    According to Edgar S.Bright Man, “In the most elementary sense, value means whatever is actually liked prized, esteemed desired, approved or enjoyed by any one at any time. It is the actual experience of enjoying a desired object or activity”.
3)    According to Parker, “Values belong wholly to the inner world of mind. The satisfaction of desire is the real value, the thing that serves is only an instruments. A value is always an experience never a thing or an object”.
4)    Views of Dr. Premkripal, “Values may be defined as(a) what we believe – professed values (b) what we practices – operational values and (c) what we learn from experience in order to adapt and renew traditions received from the past – traditional values”.
5)    According to Cunning ham, “Educational values become aims of education according to these qualities abilities and capacities are promoted in theindividuality which is inherently values of life”. Thus educational values are those activities which are good useful and valuable from the point of view of education.
Value Education:
            Value education refers to a program of planned educational action aimed at the development of value and character. Every action and thought of our leaves an impression in our mind. These impressions determine in our behavior at a given moment and our response to a given situation. The sum total of all our impressions in what determines our character. The past has determined the present and even so the present our present thoughts and actions will shape our future. This is a key principle governing personality development.
1.     Personal values
2.     Religious values
3.     Social values
4.     Political values
5.     Economic values
6.     Intellectual values
7.     Ethical values
1. Personal values:
            Personal values refer to those values which desired and cherished by the individual irrespective of his/her social relationship. The individual determines his own standards of achievement and attains these targets without explicit interaction with any other person.
            Example: ambition, courage, honesty, punctuality, self-confidence, simplicity, dignity of labor etc.

2. Religious values:
            Worship, devotion and faith come in the category of religious values. Religious values are related to faith in God, means of reaching him, consequences that result from the deviations of not adhering to such noble paths.
3. Social values:
            It refers to those values which are others oriented. They are concerning to society. Social values are always practiced in relation to our neighbors, community, society, nation and the world.
            Example: Accountability, courtesy, forgiveness, freedom, friendship, hospitality, justice, love, patience, responsibility sympathy etc.
4. Political values:
            These values arise out of man’s desire for power. Any political system it treats all men equal in the eyes of justice and administers the people becomes a higher value
5. Economic values:
            Economic values come to be known through market prices. Wealth and money is needed for the fulfillment of the needs of life. It includes all those commodities which can be purchased. All things that have an exchange value may be said to have economicvalues.
6. Intellectual values:
            The importance of knowledge and acquisition of truth under the category of intellectual values. This is related to knowing the truth in many of its forms. The knowledge of truth is made use of in various ways to get satisfaction.
Methods of value education
            The programs of value education should be pre-planned. All the curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities of the schools should appropriately be geared to achieve the desired goals. The methods of value-education involve. The formal, informal and non-formal methods of teaching.
i.            Direct and Indirect Methods of Teaching:
            Direct approach means teaching values directly to others. Here efforts are made cautiously to teach different values to others. Sometimes it may result in reaction formation or contra-suggestions being formed, which will be defeating the purpose of instruction.
            Indirect approach of teaching the different values is more convenient and effective. Here teaching in done unconsciously. The students learn values incidentally.
ii.            Formal and Informal Approach:
            When the learners are taught about difficult values by using formal ways it may not have greater effect. Here materials from book are taught with the motive of teaching certain values. On the other hand, the learner or the receiver of values is unaware of everything. He reads some materials from the books and is able to pick up values of life incidentally. This type of learning in of greater values and lants longer.
iii.            Curricular and co-curricular Approach:
            According to curricular approach separate syllabus on framed which aims at teaching different values to the learners the syllabus is prescribed and teaching in done to finish the syllabus. In the text books, the different values may be integrated in different chapters. Thus, the students have curricular program which helps them to learn different values.
            The co-curricular activities can be well exploited for the development of secular, moral and social values. According to co-curricular program, different activities such as singing poem, recitation, drama, debate essay writing competition etc. are organized with the main motive of inculcating different values of life in the youth.
            Value education is essentially a matter of educating the feelings and emotions. It is the training of the heart and consists in developing the right feelings and emotions. It does not involve any cognitive abilities that can be trained. It is to ‘caught’ rather than taught. It is essentially a matter of creating the right atmosphere, imitation and learning by example communication with nature or modeling on self after an ideal. There are five dimensions of value education and they are
                                i.            Physical education
                              ii.            Emotional education
                            iii.            Mental education
                           iv.            Aesthetic development
                             v.            Moral and spiritual domain
Importance of Values
i.            Values and Sub-Systems of the society:
            Sub-systems of the society like political economic social educational, religious, industrial system depends upon values. For e.g. political values affects everyone in India and the world over there is a decline in value system at political level there is corruption and crime everywhere. It is due to the erosion of values in political system.
ii.            Values and family:
            Family’s peaceful environment and its development depend upon their values.
iii.            Values and Locality:
            Behavior of individuals at a particular locality depends upon their values.
iv.            Values and Individual:
            Growth is development of an individual / society depends upon its values.

v.            Values and Educational Institutions:
            The environment in different educational institutions depends upon value system being followed. Decline is value system leads to decline in educational standards.
            In this way there is a great importance of values in our lives.
According to Mahatma Gandih;
            “It wealth is lost, nothing is lost”
            “It health is lost, something is lost”
            “It character is lost, everything is lost”
            Values are the guiding principles decide in day to day behavior as also is critical life situation values are a set bring of principles or standard of behavior values are regarded desirable, important and held in high eastern by a particular society in which a person live.
Source of value:
            Values are there with in the individuals and they develop in them as are the situations all around and the circumstances hey are placed in our values are embedded in all our institutions which are the artifacts of society and culture. So values are not something which is remote and unattainable. Moreover there values can be identified in our achievements. Various sources of values are;
1)    Religion:
            Religion is an important source of values. It means to bind and unity the people. It is thus unifying force. Every religion has its distinctive philosophy and approach to life. They propagate different values.
            Hindu religion advocates self-realization or Moksha. Everyone ultimately tries to merge his own self with universal God.
            Christianity, Islamand Sikhism emphasis a particular way of life banned on the doctrines and principles of respective religion. All the religions some common values such as (a)Simplicity (b) Pursuit of truth (c) Dignity of labor (d) Tolerance (e) Broad Mindedness (f) Welfare of Mankind (g) Attainment of bliss Moksha (h) Holy life and (i) Purity and simple living.
2)    Philosophy:
            Philosophy of live is another important source of values. There are varying philosophy of life and education. Idealism recommends higher and fundamental values of life such as Truth, Beauty and Goodness.
3)    Literature:
            Literature in also an important source of values. Literature and social life are closely interlinked. The basic function and role of language and literature is to promote right types values among the people.
4)    Social customs:
            Social customs such as social functions, cultural heritage, social beliefs, and social practices advocate different types of values.
5)    Science:

            It is an important social institution and is a source of values. Through science we are able to have our knowledge banned on observation, experimentation and rational thinking. According to Barber, the values more favorable for science are (a) Rationality (b) Utilitarianism(c) Universalism (d) Individualism.

Project Method

            The Project Method of teaching was first propounded by John Dewey. The basic idea of this method is that pupil can learn a lot of things with the help if association and mutual co-operation. This method promotes purposeful activities through a group of pupils and the pupil will work co-operatively. The pupils will work together by forming small groups according to their interest and abilities. The main objective of this method are learning by doing and learning by living together.
            “A project is a whole hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment”.

“A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural selection”.
                                                                                                            -Prof. Stevenson

“A project is a bit of real life that has been imported into school”.

Principles underlying Project Method
1. Purposiveness
            There must be some objective of the project because the pupils do that work with more enthusiasm which has definite and clear objectives.
2. Freedom
            The pupils are free to select the project. They select the project according to their will and they execute it with the advice of the teacher.
3. Activity
            The project should be activity centered because the knowledge gained if activity is stable and useful.
4. Reality
            The project should be real. Only then the pupils would be able to complete it naturally and in real conditions.
5. Utility
            The project must process the quality of utility because the pupils do the work more interest which is useful for them.
Essential Steps of Project Method
            The following steps are involved in this method
                                            i.            Providing a situation
                                          ii.            Choosing the project
                                        iii.            Planning
                                       iv.            Executing the project
                                         v.            Evaluation of the project
                                       vi.            Recording of the project

1. Providing a situation:
            In this step, a situation is provided to the students to think over in choosing some project to work on. They may be confronted with a problem while studying in the classroom, participating in co-curricular activities and going on excursion etc. It may force them to think about for choosing some project.
2. Choosing the project:
            In this second step students try to choose a definite and appropriate project keeping in view of the resources in hand and the nature of the problem faced in the first step. They are properly guided by their teachers in this selection task. Then the aims and objectives of choosing a project are properly discussed through group participation.
3. Planning:
            The project chosen is again discussed in terms of laying down a plan and procedure for the execution of the project.
4. Executing the project:
            In this step students are engaged in the execution of the project in a natural way without involving any artificiality. They plan their roles according to their abilities and capacities with a true, social and co-operative spirit.
5. Evaluation of the project:
            In this step the work done on the project is evaluated from time to time. The line of action and mode of execution may be modified on the results of such evaluation.
6. Recording:
            A complete record of the work, their planning, discussion on significant aspects, their achievement etc. has to be developed by the pupils at the end. Also they should record the criticism of their own work and the suggestions for the further work.

Criteria of a good project
            A good project can be accessed using the following criteria.
v A project should be purposeful, useful and practically applicable to the daily life of the students, with clear, well defined objectives.
v The project should help in providing useful and meaningful learning experiences to each member of the group.
v The project should be within the reach of the students in accordance with their interest and ability levels.
v The project should be feasible in terms the availability of human and material resources and time limit.
v The level of complexity of the project should match the ability level of the students.
v The learning activities of the project should be life-like purposeful and natural.
Merits of project method
1. Psychological method
            Project method is based on psychological principles. The innate tendencies, interests and aptitudes of the students are best utilized in this method.
2. Democratic way of learning
            Liberty, equality and fraternity are some of the cardinal principles which form the basis of project method. Right from the selection of the project till its execution students are provided sufficient freedom for thinking, decision making and going ahead in their assigned tasks. All of these students cooperate in a common project according to their tastes, temperaments, abilities and capacities.

3. Development of the social virtue
            Many virtues essential for good citizenship like self-confidence, tolerance, patience, self-dependence sense of responsibility duty blondness, resourcefulness, mutual love and co-operation etc.
4. Practical method
            This method of the maxims of teaching like ‘learning by doing’ and learning by living. Therefore what is to be learnt in project method is learnt by doing that in a very practical way. In project method the problems concerning actual life activities are undertaken therefore, it provides sufficient training to the students to use their learning in their practical life.
5. Dignity of learner
            Project method emphasizes dignity of labor. Students irrespective of their caste, creed and social status join their hands in doing mental and manual labor in the execution of the project.
Demerits of project method
1. Difficulty on the part of the teacher
            Project method provides many challenges to the teachers in charge right from theselection of the project till its execution. Every teacher is not equipped with such enthusiasm abilities and leadership essential for working with such a method.
2.Uneconomical method
            Project method is an uneconomical method in the sense that the time, labor and amount spent in this method is quite larger than return received.
3. Not suitable for teaching subject
            No organized and systematic teaching is possible in the project method.

4. Difficulty in covering the syllabus
            Project method put obstacles in terms of the coverage of lengthy school syllabus. Through projects hardly a part of the syllabus can be covered and therefore, it doesn’t suit the present day teaching.
5. Not suitable to the present day condition
            In India, our schools can be neither afford sufficient money nor provide appropriate personal for teaching with project method. For using this method, suitable textbooks are also not available. Schools are over crowed and the educational structure is examination oriented.